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Pune - India
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Pune is the second largest city in the state of Maharashtra in western India, around 160 kilometers southeast of the state capital, Mumbai. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha river, Pune is the administrative capital of Pune district and the eighth most populous metropolitan area in India. Pune has existed as a town since at least 937 AD. Chhatrapati Shivaji spent his early years in this city, and his rule initiated lot of development activities in the city. As a result Pune became one of the richest and most culturally developed city on 'Maharashtrian Deccan plateau'. After 1730, Pune rose to national level as a power centre due to the Peshwe, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire who reported to the Chhatrapati of Satara. After the town was brought under the control of British India in 1817, it served as a cantonment town and as the "monsoon capital" of the Bombay Presidency until the independence of India.

The name Pune derives from Punya Nagari (Sanskrit, "City of Virtue"). The oldest reference to this name is on a Rashtrakuta copper plate dated to 937, in which the town is referred to as as Punya-Vishaya or Punak Vishaya. By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Kasbe Pune or Punavadi. Although the city's name is sometimes transcribed as Poona in English, a practise particularly common during the British Raj, the spelling "Pune" has now become standard. In independent India, Pune is known for its educational facilities, having more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities. It also boasts a growing industrial hinterland, with many information technology and automotive companies setting up factories in Pune district. Business process outsourcing companies have also seen significant growth here. In addition to the University of Pune, Pune is home to several research institutions of national importance. Pune has been a prominent cantonment town since the early 1800s. It is the headquarters of the Indian Army's Southern Command. College of Military Engineering and the Bombay Engineering Group, where the sappers of the Indian Army are trained. The National Defence Academy (NDA) at Khadakwasla, the joint services academy where Army, Navy and Air Force cadets are trained together before they go for their pre-commission training to their respective academies. Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km south of the city. Pune has a tropical wet and dry climate with average temperatures ranging between 20°C to 28°C. Pune experiences three distinct seasons: summer, monsoon and winter.

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